No further clinical studies have been published since then to assess the efficacy and safety of Huntington’s disease. In a 10-year-old patient, 5 months of treatment with CBD oil and liquid CBD (6-12 mg) in a sublingual aerosol were associated with less anxiety and better sleep quality, if necessary, without adverse effects (Shannon and Opila-Lehman, 2016). These results were replicated for anxiety in an overview of the recently published table of 72 adult patients with insomnia and anxiety (Shannon et al. 2019). Most patients in this group received 25 mg CBD / day, while some patients received 50 or 75 mg / day and one patient with schizophrenic disorder and trauma up to 175 mg / day. All patients showed less anxiety and better sleep, with a 65-80% decrease on Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores. The efficacy of CBD for SAD and PTSD was investigated in three studies with an RCT, a case report and a graphical study.
It is therefore not surprising that athletes are going to investigate alternative pain killers, including CBD. Despite the mechanistic justification, there are currently limited indications that CBD supplementation in vivo has anti-inflammatory effects (Naftali et al., 2017), with much of the current research with in vitro preclinical models . In addition, most studies on the effects of CBD on pain models have been completed in animal models (Casey et al. 2017). That said, the findings of these studies are promising, suggesting that a concomitant dose of CBD and THC may reduce allodynia associated with neuropathic pain in C57BL / 6 mice (Casey et al. 2017).
The efficacy and safety of CBD were further compared with atypical antipsychotic amisulpride in a randomized double-blind study in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizophreniform psychosis. In this study, CBD was found to be as effective as amisulpride in treating the symptoms of psychosis. In addition, patients in the CBD-treated group had fewer extrapyramidal symptoms, less weight gain and fewer increases in prolactin levels compared to the amisulpride-treated group. A recipe for a single nasal spray product containing 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol has been shown to be effective in improving pain, muscle tightness and urination frequency in people with MS. This product is used in more than 25 countries outside the United States. But there is inconsistent evidence for the effectiveness of cannabidiol for symptoms of multiple sclerosis when used alone. Some early research suggests that using a cannabidiol spray under the tongue can improve muscle pain and tightness, but not muscle spasms, fatigue, bladder control, mobility or well-being and quality of life in MS patients
However, there are few clinical studies with highly purified CBD and CBD-enriched cannabis in other neurological disorders and are inconclusive due to the low population of participating patients. Future research should include larger populations and higher doses of CBD. More studies are needed to understand the full potential and long-term effects of CBD
Higher doses of CBD (50 μM) or elongated application resulted in apoptosis-driven cytotoxicity and a reduced overall viable cell count. Evidence from the studies in this review may accompany future trials by providing information regarding the doses, formulations and routes of administration of CBD and nabiximols. In addition, future studies should investigate different routes of administration in the light of differences in bioavailability. Given the evidence for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, the role of CBD should be investigated in the early stages of psychosis or as an adjunct drug. Although CBD was not effective for bipolar mania, potential efficacy as an antidepressant should be evaluated in studies aimed at bipolar depression. Nabiximols have been helpful in the cannabis-related disorder and Tourette syndrome, due to the synergistic benefits of CBD and THC.
The authors conclude that while CBD’s therapeutic potential for acne, seborrhea, eczema / dermatitis and skin barrier function is promising, more robust studies are needed to fully validate its efficacy. The therapeutic potential of CBD should also be balanced with early studies affordable cbd that are largely unknown / contrast when modulating pigmentation and hair growth. Therefore, there is an underlying need for intense basic scientific research, as any speculative science can lead to unwanted effects such as hair growth / loss or hyperpopigmentation problems.
This article provides a comprehensive assessment of the evidence supporting the use of CBD and CBD-containing compounds, such as nabiximols, to treat psychiatric disorders. CBD and nabiximoles were effective in conditions related to cannabis use and preliminary tests were found to support their use for other psychiatric disorders. This assessment relates to evidence from different routes of administration, p. oral, inhalation spray and sublingual. The bioavailability of these routes (11-13% for oral vs. 11-43% for inhalation) varies considerably, a factor that can affect the effectiveness of different formulations. Nabiximols produced improvements in patients with Tourette syndrome at a much lower dose than those used for cannabis-related conditions (Trainor et al. 2016; Pichler et al. 2019).
The published scientific literature reports the potential adverse effects of cannabis use in pregnant women, including limitation of fetal growth, low birth weight, premature delivery, early gestation, admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and childbirth. According to published animal research, there are also concerns that the use of cannabis during pregnancy may adversely affect the development of the fetal brain. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that pregnant women or women who are pregnant or pregnant women be encouraged to stop cannabis use. In addition, ACOG notes that there is insufficient data to assess the effects of cannabis use on infants; therefore, the use of cannabis during breastfeeding is discouraged. Pregnant and lactating women should speak to a healthcare provider about the potential adverse health effects of cannabis use.
However, most clinical evidence to date has focused on the effects of CBD and other cannabinoids on consumption, inhalation or injection. Limited research has been conducted into the therapeutic potential for current applications. However, there are indications that the use of cannabinoids, in particular CBD, may be a viable route of administration from above for certain conditions. Reported a successful transdermal delivery of CBD in a mouse model using etosomal carriers. Additional work is justified to better understand the correct doses and delivery methods for therapeutic applications of the skin with CBD